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Peripheral Artery Disease: Causes and Consequences

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a progressive, systemic disease resulting from the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the peripheral arteries, causing stenosis and occlusion.1 PAD is often asymptomatic, but severe vascular obstruction can lead to limb ischaemia requiring amputation.1 Despite receiving treatment involving antiplatelet therapy and lifestyle changes, patients with PAD are still at high risk of thrombotic events.2

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An overview of peripheral artery disease
Approval Number PP-XAR-ALL-0082

Are Patients Still at Risk?

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Mechanism of Disease

The development of plaques in the arteries of the lower extremities, as a consequence of the systemic disease atherosclerosis, leads to Peripheral artery disease (PAD). PAD causes a spectrum of lower limb symptoms, but can often be asymptomatic.1 Patients with PAD have a high morbidity and mortality burden due to worsening of limb symptoms (which can lead to amputation) and potentially fatal, systemic atherothrombotic events (such as MI and stroke).3

 

PAD treatment involves lifestyle changes, a structured exercise programme, drugs aimed at vascular protection and, in some instances, revascularization.1,4 Treatment is aimed at improving limb prognosis (improving symptoms and minimizing tissue loss) and preventing cardiovascular events (by improving cardiovascular risk factor control and preventing atherothrombosis).4 However, even with optimal treatment, which includes an antiplatelet agent and a statin, there remains a high residual risk of systemic and limb-related ischaemic events.2

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Peripheral Artery Disease: Mechanism of Disease
Approval Number PP-XAR-ALL-1891-1

A PATIENT'S JOURNEY

Over 120 million people are estimated to have peripheral artery disease worldwide,1 yet it remains both under-diagnosed and under-treated. Here, we take a look at a fictional patient – Paul – to better understand the symptoms and the long-term outcomes of this disease.

A Patient’s Perspective: Coronary and Peripheral Artery Diseases

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A patient’s story: CAD and PAD
Approval Number PP-XAR-ALL-1735-1

A patient’s story of their experience with coronary and peripheral artery diseases, and how new therapeutic approaches helped their treatment and recovery.

References
  • Tendera M, Aboyans V, Bartelink ML et al. ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases: document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries: the task force on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2011;32:2851–2906. Return to content
  • Alberts MJ, Bhatt DL, Mas JL et al. Three-year follow-up and event rates in the international REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health Registry. Eur Heart J 2009;30:2318–2326. Return to content
  • Agnelli G, Belch JJF, Baumgartner I et al. Morbidity and mortality associated with atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease: A systematic review. Atherosclerosis 2020;293:94-100. Return to content
  • Aboyans V, Ricco JB, Bartelink MEL et al. 2017 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases, in collaboration with the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS): document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries. Eur Heart J 2018;39:763–816. Return to content

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