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Coronary Artery Disease: Causes and Consequences

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is characterized by atherosclerotic plaque formation in the coronary arteries and underlies ischaemic heart disease, the leading cause of death worldwide.1,2 Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque can lead to the formation of a blood clot in the artery.3 This is known as atherothrombosis and can lead to restricted blood flow through the artery, potentially causing myocardial infarction.4,5 Although antiplatelet therapy is available to patients with CAD, the residual risk of atherothrombotic events remains high.6,7

 

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An overview of coronary artery disease including pathogenesis and treatment.
Approval Number PP-XAR-ALL-0080

Are Patients Still at Risk?

VA CAD HF

Mechanism of Disease

The development of plaques in the coronary arteries, as a consequence of the systemic disease atherosclerosis, leads to coronary artery disease (CAD).1,5 Patients with CAD are at high risk of potentially fatal ischaemic events caused by atherothrombosis, such as MI and stroke.6 Therefore, the mortality and morbidity burden of CAD is high.1

 

CAD treatment involves lifestyle changes, drugs aimed at vascular protection and, in some instances, revascularization. Treatment aims to improve symptoms, control cardiovascular risk factors and prevent ischaemic events.8 However, even with optimal treatment, which includes an antiplatelet agent and a statin, there remains a high residual risk of ischaemic events.6

 

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Coronary Artery Disease: Mechanism of Disease
An overview of coronary artery disease development and pathogenesis
Approval Number PP-XAR-ALL-1890-1

References
  • Sanchis-Gomar F, Perez-Quilis C, Leischik R, Lucia A. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome. Ann Transl Med 2016;4:256. Return to content
  • World Health Organization. 2018. World Health Organization. 2018. Return to content
  • Libby P. Mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes and their implications for therapy. N Engl J Med 2013;368:2004–2013. Return to content
  • Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS et al. Third universal definition of myocardial infarction. Circulation 2012;126:2020-2035. Return to content
  • Libby P, Ridker PM, Hansson GK. Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature 2011;473:317–325. Return to content
  • Alberts MJ, Bhatt DL, Mas JL et al. Three-year follow-up and event rates in the international REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health Registry. Eur Heart J 2009;30:2318–2326. Return to content
  • Tendera M, Aboyans V, Bartelink ML et al. ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases: document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries: the task force on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2011;32:2851–2906. Return to content
  • Knuuti J, Wijns W, Saraste A et al. 2019 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J 2020;41:407–477. Return to content

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