Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

Describes both heart attack and unstable angina.


Are used to treat hypertension or high-blood pressure as a last-resort after beta-blockers.


Alteplase is used for treating blood clots in the lungs. It is also used to treat/restore some heart function following a heart attack, as well as recovery and function in the instance of a stroke.


Amiodarone helps keep the heart rhythm beating normally in people with life-threatening heart arrhythmias of the ventricles.


Lower than normal count of red blood cells in the blood.


The insufficient supply of blood to the heart usually resulting from exercise that can be induced by atherosclerotic plaque.


A type of X-ray combined with an injectable dye used to visualise blood vessels.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduces blood pressure by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system that regulates urinary excretion.


A deficiency of oxygen in the tissues in the body.


Reduces the formation of thrombi by inhibiting thrombin formation.


A direct Factor Xa inhibitor NOAC.

Arterial thrombosis

The formation of blood clots in the arteries of the bodies.


Blood vessel carrying oxygenated blood to the tissues of the body.


A pain-killer that also acts as an antiplatelet medicine.

Atherosclerotic plaque

The deposition of excess lipids (fat substances, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, cholesterol) in the artery.

Atrial extrasystoles

Extrasystoles in the atria of the heart.

Atrial Fibrillation

An abnormal electrical rhythm that causes the heart to beat erratically or faster or slower.

Atrial Fibrillation Related Stroke

The irregular beating of the heart causes blood in the atrial chambers to clot that can then travel to the brain and cause a stroke.

Atrial flutter

A common abnormal heart rhythm where the atrial chambers (upper chambers of the heart) beat too fast and thus are out of sync with the ventricles.



Beta-blockers decrease the activity of the heart mostly by blocking receptors for hormones like adrenaline.

Blood clot

A blood clot is the aggregation of blood cells triggered by the activation of thrombin.



A stimulant that raises blood pressure.

Calcium channel blocker

Reduces the amount of calcium entering the cells of the heart and blood vessel walls that is used to treat hypertension, angina and heart rhythm abnormalities.

Carotid endarterectomy

Is a surgical procedure to remove a blood clot from the carotid arteries.


A doctor specialising in the heart and blood vessels.


A medical procedure to restore normal heart rhythm using electrical shocks.


A tube inserted into the body that allows fluid to be delivered or removed.

Catheter ablation

Is a drug-free solution to abnormal serious heart rhythms that interfere with the person’s quality of life by inserting small catheters through the heart that detect where the irregular heart rhythm is coming from and then destroyed using radiofrequency (heat) ablation or cryoablation.

CHA2DS2-VASC score

Clinical prediction scores for estimating the risk of stroke in people with atrial fibrillation.


Antiplatelet medicine.


An essential component of blood that can clog arteries if too much is present.

Compression stockings

Leg-wear that helps manage deep vein thrombosis by applying pressure to the legs.

Computer Tomography (CT)

Brain scans that allows doctors to visualise inside the body.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)

Surgical procedure to restore blood to the heart.

Coronary Heart/ Artery Disease

The deposition of atherosclerotic (lipid, fatty) plaques in the coronary arteries that become susceptible to thrombosis formation.


Type of surgery to remove a part of the skull to expose the brain.



Is a direct Factor II (thrombin) inhibitor NOAC.

Deep Vein Thrombosis

The formation of thrombosis usually in the deep veins of the leg, but can also be in the arms, that can cause physical symptoms such as swelling around the area.


Diabetes is the abnormal regulation of blood glucose control due to the decreased production of insulin.


drug used to treat heart failure by making the heart beat stronger and with a more regular rhythm.


Alternative to amiodarone in controlling heart rhythms in people with atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation whose heart’s have returned to normal.



An ultrasound scan to detect abnormalities in heart structure.

Ectopic foci

Small changes in an otherwise normal heartbeat that leads to an extra or skipped beat.


Is a direct Factor Xa inhibitor NOAC.

Electrical Cardioversion

Restores normal heart rhythm in people who have abnormal heart rhythms by sending electric shocks to heart by placing electrodes on the heart.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Sensors or electrodes attached to stickers are placed on the person to detect the heart’s electrical activity.


An emergency surgery to remove a clot that is preventing regular blood circulation.


The formation of a clot that forms a blockage in a part of the body.

Episodic atrial fibrillation

An intermittent form of atrial fibrillation.


Extra heart-beats of either the atria or the ventricles that are out-of-sync with either the atria or the ventricles.


Factor Xa inhibitors

Factor Xa inhibitors inhibit a protein that is central to the formation of blood clots by prothrombin to thrombin.

Fibrinolytic treatment

Drugs used to dissolve blood clots.


Used to control abnormal heart rhythm disturbances in atrial fibrillation.



An energy source (sugar) for the body.

Glyceryl trinitrate

A drug to treat heart failure and high blood pressure.


Haemodynamic treatments

Drugs used to restore the regular state of the blood flow.


Haemorrhagic strokes are caused by the rupturing of weakened blood vessels causing blood to bleed in that area of the brain.

Heart attack/ Myocardial Infarction (HA/ MI)

A heart attack is a serious medical emergency where the arteries supplying the heart with blood become blocked usually due to thrombosis development from the build-up and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques.

Heart failure

Heart failure is compromised heart function usually arising from a heart attack.


Also known as unfractionated heparin, heparin is an injectable anticoagulant used to dissolve clots usually after an acute event has occurred.

High flow oxygen treatment

A form of support to the lungs that aims to restore oxygen levels.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL)

A type of cholesterol commonly known as ‘good cholesterol’.

Hormone replacement therapy

A type of therapy to restore regular hormone levels.


An elevated blood pressure above the normal range of 120 to 160 mmHg to 80 to 100 mmHg.


Describes when the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormones.



A part of the body deprived of oxygenated blood that damages the cells.

Inferior vena cava

One of the major veins that delivers blood from the lower part of the body to the heart.

Inferior Vena Cava filter

A device placed in the inferior vena cava to prevent clots travelling to the lungs and causing a pulmonary embolism.

Intermittent atrial fibrillation

A type of atrial fibrillation that occurs at irregular intervals

International Normalised Ratio (INR)

Medical calculation to predict the likelihood that the blood will either form a clot or become to thin.

Intravenous fluid treatment

Delivering drugs directly into the vein.

Ischaemic stroke

Ischaemic strokes are thrombi or blood clots that occludes blood supply to the brain causing damage.


Lactic acid

A product created by the body when not enough oxygen is in the body and causes pain in the musculature.

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

A type of cholesterol known as ‘bad cholesterol’.


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Scans that allows doctors to visualise inside the body.

Multifocal tachycardia

A rapid, irregular atrial rhythm arising from multiple ectopic foci within the atria of the heart.



A stimulant regularly found in tobacco.

Non-ST elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)

A type of heart attack where the first part of the heart rhythm does not reach a critical threshold.

Non-VKA/ Direct Oral Anticoagulants (NOAC/ DOAC)

A new class of drugs that are as effective and safer than the typical treatment of warfarin since 2009.



Higher than average weight that can potentially cause health complications.



A pacemaker is a small electrical device that is implanted into the chest or abdomen to control abnormal heart rhythms, that then uses low-energy electrical pulses to prompt the heart to beat at a normal heart rate.


A feeling of the heart-beat becoming more irregular either by beating harder, irregularly or ‘fluttering’.

Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

Sporadic episodes of atrial fibrillation that usually clear up within 7 days.

Percutaneous coronary intervention

A type of surgery to place a stent in the blood vessel to keep it dilated.

Peripheral artery disease

The deposition of atherosclerotic plaque in the peripheral arteries that become susceptible to thrombosis formation.

Permanent atrial fibrillation

Long-term atrial fibrillation where a clinical decision has been made not to try to reverse it.

Persistent atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation that lasts longer than seven days.


Protein naturally found in the blood that dissolves clots.


A protein produced by the liver to produce plasmin.


An antiplatelet medicine.

Pulmonary embolism

A blood clot in the lungs that disrupts blood supply.


Rate controllers

Rate control medications slows the heart rate to generally less than 100 beats per minute by blocking some of the errant electrical signals.

Rhythm controllers

Restore the abnormal rhythms of the heart to normality.

Risk factors

Increases the chances of a disease or condition occurring..


Is a direct Factor Xa inhibitor NOAC.


Serum troponin

Troponin is produced by the heart muscle when a heart attack has occurred and is a good indicator of when one has occurred.

Sinus tachycardia

Sinus rhythm with an elevated rate of impulses.

ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI)

A type of heart attack where the first part of the heart-beat becomes elevated.


Lower the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood, normalising the levels of cholesterol.


Drug used to dissolve blood clots.

Stress test

A test designed to assess how much stress a person is under.


A blood clot or thrombus in the brain that obstructs blood supply to the brain.

Supraventricular tachycardia

An abnormally fast heart rate above 100 beats per minute arising from improper electrical activity in the upper part of the heart.

Surgical thrombectomy

A surgical procedure to remove a blood clot blocking circulation.

Swallow test

A type of X-ray combined with a dye used to visualise the structures of the oesophagus.


Another term for fainting.



A type of atrial arrhythmia where the heart beats too fast and can’t properly deliver blood to the rest of the body.

Thiazide diuretics

A type of drug used to help lower blood pressure by removing fluid that has built-up in the body.


Is a surgical procedure that tries to remove a blood clot from an artery or vein.


A clot that has formed in one part of the body and travelled to another part.


Treatment to dissolve blood clots.


A state of the blood where it makes it more likely to form clots.


A clot that forms a blockage in the blood vessels.


An antiplatelet medicine.

Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)

A transient ischaemic attack is caused by a small blood clot that blocks the arteries in the brain causing a small amount of damage.


Ultrasound scan

Uses sound waves to create a physical image on a computer screen to visualise inside the body.

Unstable angina (UA)

Atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries reduces the blood supply to the heart that causes pain in the chest even at rest.



Drug to raise blood pressure by constricting the blood vessels.


Blood vessel carrying deoxygenated blood (blood without oxygen) back to the heart.


A type of x-ray combined with an injectable dye to visualize the veins to assess if anything is wrong with them.

Venous Thromboembolism

A blood clot formed from deep vein thrombosis that travels to the lungs to cause a pulmonary embolism.

Ventilation Perfusion Scan

An imaging test to visualize the lungs.

Ventricular ectopic beats

Extrasystoles in the ventricles.

Vitamin K antagonists (VKA)

Coagulation depends on vitamin K to catalyze the formation of blood clots. Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, prevent the clotting proteins from being formed.



Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist that prevents the formation of blood clots.