Are used to treat hypertension or high-blood pressure as a last-resort after beta-blockers.
Alteplase is used for treating blood clots in the lungs. It is also used to treat restore some heart function following a heart attack, as well as recovery and function in the instance of a stroke.
Amiodarone helps keep the heart rhythm beating normally in people with life-threatening heart arrhythmias of the ventricles.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduces blood pressure by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system that regulates urinary excretion.
The insufficient supply of blood to the heart usually resulting from exercise that can be induced by atherosclerotic plaque.
The deposition of excess lipids (fat substances, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, cholesterol) in the artery.
An abnormal electrical rhythm that causes the heart to beat erratically or faster or slower.
Atrial Fibrillation Related Stroke
The irregular beating of the heart causes blood in the atrial chambers to clot that can then travel to the brain and cause a stroke.
A common abnormal heart rhythm where the atrial chambers (upper chambers of the heart) beat too fast and that are out of sync with the ventricles.
Beta-blockers decrease the activity of heart mostly by blocking hormones like adrenaline.
A blood clot is the aggregation of blood cells triggered by the activation of thrombin.
Calcium channel blocker
Reduces the amount of calcium entering the cells of the heart and blood vessel walls that is used to treat hypertension, angina and heart rhythm abnormalities.
Is a surgical procedure to remove a blood clot from the carotid arteries.
Is a drug-free solution to abnormal serious heart rhythms that interfere with the person’s quality of life by inserting small catheters through the heart that detect where the irregular heart rhythm is coming from and then destroyed using radiofrequency (heat) ablation or cryoablation.
Clinical prediction scores for estimating the risk of stroke in people with atrial fibrillation.
Leg-wear that helps manage deep vein thrombosis by applying pressure to the legs.
Coronary Heart/ Artery Disease
The deposition of atherosclerotic (lipid, fatty) plaques in the coronary arteries that become susceptible to thrombosis formation.
Deep Vein Thrombosis
The formation of thrombosis usually in the deep veins of the leg, but can also be in the arms, that can cause physical symptoms such as swelling around the area.
Diabetes is the abnormal regulation of blood glucose control due to the decreased production of insulin.
Drug used to treat heart failure by making the heart beat stronger and with a more regular rhythm.
Alternative to amiodarone in controlling heart rhythms in people with atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation whose heart’s have returned to normal.
Small changes in an otherwise normal heartbeat that leads to an extra or skipped beat.
Restores normal heart rhythm in people who have abnormal heart rhythms by sending electric shocks to heart by placing electrodes on the heart.
Sensors or electrodes attached to stickers are placed on the person to detect the heart’s electrical activity.
An emergency surgery to remove a clot that is preventing regular blood circulation.
Extra heart-beats of either the atria or the ventricles that are out-of-sync with either the atria or the ventricles.
Factor Xa inhibitors
Factor Xa inhibitors inhibit a protein that is central to the formation of blood clots by prothrombin to thrombin.
Heart attack/ Myocardial Infarction (HA/ MI)
A heart attack is a serious medical emergency where the arteries supplying the heart with blood become blocked usually due to thrombosis development from the build-up and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques.
Heart failure is compromised heart function usually arising from a heart attack.
Also known as unfractionated heparin, heparin is an injectable anticoagulant used to dissolve clots usually after an acute event has occurred.
Haemorrhagic strokes are caused by the rupturing of weakened blood vessels causing blood to bleed in that area of the brain.
An elevated blood pressure above the normal range of 120 to 160 mmHg to 80 to 100 mmHg.
Inferior vena cava
One of the major veins that delivers blood from the lower part of the body to the heart.
Inferior Vena Cava filter
A device placed in the inferior vena cava to prevent clots travelling to the lungs and causing a pulmonary embolism.
International Normalised Ratio (INR)
Medical calculation to predict the likelihood that the blood will either form a clot or become to thin.
Intermittent atrial fibrillation
A type of atrial fibrillation that occurs at irregular intervals
Ischaemic strokes are thrombi or blood clots that occludes blood supply to the brain causing damage.
A product created by the body and causes pain when not enough oxygen is in the body.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A rapid, irregular atrial rhythm arising from multiple ectopic foci within the atria of the heart.
Non-ST elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
A type of heart attack where the the first part of the heart rhythm does not reach a critical threshold.
Non-VKA/ Direct Oral Anticoagulants (NOAC/ DOAC)
A new class of drugs that are as effective and safer than the typical treatment of warfarin since 2009.
A pacemaker is a small electrical device that is implanted into the chest or abdomen to control abnormal heart rhythms, that then uses low-energy electrical pulses to prompt the heart to beat at a normal heart rate.
A feeling of the heart-beat becoming more irregular either by beating harder, irregularly or ‘fluttering’.
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
Two episodes of atrial fibrillation that clear up within 7 days.
Percutaneous coronary intervention
A type of surgery to place a stent in the blood vessel to keep it dilated.
Peripheral artery disease
The deposition of atherosclerotic plaque in the peripheral arteries that become susceptible to thrombosis formation.
Permanent atrial fibrillation
Long-term atrial fibrillation where a clinical decision has been made not to try to reverse it.
Rate control medications slows the heart rate to generally less than 100 beats per minute by blocking some of the errant electrical signals.
Troponin is produced by the heart muscle when a heart attack has occurred and is a good indicator of when one has occurred.
ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI)
A type of heart attack where the first part of the heart-beat becomes elevated.
Lower the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood, normalising the levels of cholesterol.
A type of X-ray combined with a dye used to visualise the structures of the oesophagus.
A type of atrial fibrillation where the heart beats too fast and can’t properly deliver blood to the rest of the body.
A type of drug used to help lower blood pressure by removing fluid that has built-up in the body.
Is a surgical procedure that tries to remove a blood clot from an artery or vein.
Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)
A transient ischaemic attack is a small blood clot that blocks the arteries in the brain causing a small amount of damage.
Uses sound waves to create a physical image on a computer screen to visualise inside the body.
Unstable angina (UA)
Atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries reduces the blood supply to the heart that causes pain in the chest even at rest.
A type of x-ray combined with an injectable dye to visualise the veins to assess if anything is wrong with them.
A blood clot formed from deep vein thrombosis that travels to the lungs to cause a pulmonary embolism.
Vitamin K antagonists (VKA)
Coagulation depends on vitamin K to create blood clots. Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, prevent the clotting proteins from being formed.