all a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z 0-9
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits platelet aggregation.
When a heart valve fails to close tightly and allows blood to flow in both directions.
A range of acute myocardial ischaemic states encompassing unstable angina, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
Chest pain caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle.
An agent that is given to prevent blood from clotting or to prevent existing clots from getting larger.
An agent that is given to prevent blood from clotting or to prevent existing clots from getting larger.
Autoimmune antibodies, including anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant, produced against phospholipid in cell membranes. The production of these antibodies may lead to formation of blood clots, pregnancy loss or pregnancy-related complications, and is known as antiphospholipid syndrome.
An agent that inhibits platelet aggregation and thereby inhibits clot formation and arteriothrombotic events.
An agent that inhibits platelet aggregation and thereby inhibits clot formation and arteriothrombotic events.
An agent that inhibits platelet aggregation and thereby inhibits clot formation and arteriothrombotic events.
A therapy that reduces the formation of blood clots.
A therapy that reduces the formation of blood clots.
A widening/ballooning of a portion of the aorta (aortic aneurysm) or a tear in the wall of the aorta (aortic dissection).
An oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor (Eliquis®) that has received regulatory approval for venous thromboembolism prevention in adult patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery, the treatment and secondary prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in adults, and the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in adult patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.
An intravenously administered direct thrombin inhibitor used for the prophylaxis and treatment of thrombosis in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
Abnormal heart rhythm as opposed to normal sinus rhythm. In arrhythmia, electrical impulses that coordinate heart rhythm are disturbed, causing the heart to beat too fast, too slow or irregularly.
A condition in which the arterial wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty deposits including cholesterol. It is a chronic inflammatory response in the arterial walls, promoted by low-density lipoproteins and caused largely by the accumulation of white blood cells, macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells.
A thickening of the arterial wall, which may consist of cholesterol, calcium, cellular debris and vascular smooth muscle cells. The plaque may grow and lead to narrowing of the artery, causing serious problems, including heart attack, stroke or even death.
Formation of a blood clot within an artery as a result of atherosclerosis (build-up of fatty material within the artery).
The most common type of cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat) associated with an increased risk of stroke, congestive heart failure and mortality.
An investigational non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant that acts as a direct Factor Xa inhibitor.
A biomarker (biological marker) is an indicator of a biological state that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Examples of biomarkers associated with venous thromboembolism include D-dimer and soluble P-selectin.
A replacement mitral valve made out of natural, non-synthetic tissue, e.g. porcine heart valve.
A parenteral reversible direct inhibitor (Angiomax®) of thrombin that inhibits both circulating and clot-bound thrombin and also thrombin-mediated platelet activation and aggregation.
A substance released into the blood when the heart is damaged or stressed.
A non-lacunar brain infarct without proximal arterial stenosis or an identified source of cardioembolism; also referred to as cryptogenic stroke.
An agent that binds to and inhibits the action of the P2Y12 receptor, thereby reducing platelet aggregation and blood clot formation. Examples include thienopyridine compounds such as clopidogrel and prasugrel.
The volume of blood ejected by the ventricles per minute.
A complex of three myocardial regulatory proteins – troponin I, C and T, which are found in varying amounts in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Together, these regulate the calcium-modulated interaction of actin and myosin. Troponin levels are sensitive markers of myocardial injury and various other heart disorders.
Cardioembolic stroke is caused by a blood clot that originates in the heart. This type of stroke accounts for approximately 20% of all ischaemic strokes and is usually the most severe form of stroke because of the large size of the emboli.
A blood clot that originated in the heart and has broken away and travelled via the bloodstream to another part of the body, where it causes vessel obstruction.
A blood clot that originated in the heart and has broken away and travelled via the bloodstream to another part of the body, where it causes vessel obstruction.
A physiological state in which failure of the heart to pump efficiently prevents adequate blood flow to the organs and is usually fatal in the absence of immediate medical treatment.
The interdependence of the heart, lungs and oxygen-carrying capacity of any given patient.
A method of re-establishing normal sinus rhythm in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation that can be either electrical or pharmacological.
Commonly used technique to correct cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. Cardiac tissue causing the arrhythmia is destroyed and normal sinus rhythm is often restored.
A group of diseases of the blood vessels supplying the brain, frequently caused by hypertension. Such diseases can include stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, ischaemia or other blood vessel dysfunctions.
An index to determine the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. One point each is assigned for the presence of: Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years and Diabetes mellitus; and two points for a history of Stroke or transient ischaemic attack.
An index to determine the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, which includes additional stroke risk factors to the CHADS2 score. The CHA2DS2-VASc scheme assigns points for each of the following factors: Congestive heart failure/left ventricular dysfunction (1 point), Hypertension (1 point), Age ≥75 years [doubled] (2 points), Diabetes (1 point), Stroke/transient ischaemic attack/thromboembolism [doubled] (2 points) – Vascular disease (1 point), Age 65–74 years (1 point), and Sex category [female] (1 point).
A pulmonary vascular disease caused by obstruction of the major pulmonary arteries, including from a pulmonary embolism. Manifests as non-specific symptoms such as dyspnoea on exertion, fatigue and syncope, mainly caused by right heart failure.
Cramp-like pains in the lower legs caused by poor circulation to the leg muscles.
The process of formation of a blood clot.
Measurement of the ability of blood to clot and the time it takes to clot.
Relating to or containing collagen.
A technique combining real-time ultrasound imaging of the deep veins with venous compression to diagnose deep vein thrombosis.
A radiographic technique, also known as a CT scan, which uses a computer to assimilate multiple X-ray images into a two-dimensional cross-sectional image. Types of computed tomography include:
Helical/spiral CT – a computed tomography technology involving movement in a helical pattern for the purpose of increasing resolution. Most modern hospitals use spiral CT scanners.
CT pulmonary angiography – highly sensitive and specific diagnostic test, involving injection of intravenous contrast medium to visualize the pulmonary arteries.
CT venography – contrast-enhanced axial CT images, also known as ‘indirect CT venography’, are acquired in conjunction with CT pulmonary angiography and not as a standalone examination.
A surgical procedure used to treat coronary heart disease, which involves taking a blood vessel from another part of the body, usually the chest or leg, and attaching it to the coronary artery above and below the narrowed area or blockage. This new blood vessel (graft) diverts the flow of blood around the part of the coronary artery that is narrowed or blocked.
A narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis.
Restoration of blood supply to ischaemic heart tissue, using methods such as chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization or coronary artery bypass grafting.
Restoration of blood supply to the heart, commonly performed using percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting procedures.
The volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time. Used to evaluate a patient’s renal function.
Of unknown origin.
A family of diverse cell-signalling proteins secreted by many cells, which are used extensively in intercellular communication. Cytokines can be classified as proteins, peptides or glycoproteins.
An oral direct thrombin inhibitor (Pradaxa®) that has received regulatory approval for venous thromboembolism prevention in adult patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery, the treatment and secondary prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in adults (after treatment with a parenteral anticoagulant for ≥5 days), and the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in adult patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.
A low molecular weight heparin (Fragmin®).
A low molecular weight heparinoid (Orgaran®).
A marker of endogenous fibrinolysis that can be routinely used as a diagnostic aid to exclude deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.
A thrombus in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
A disease characterized by hyperglycaemia due to defects in insulin production and/or action. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus: in type 1 diabetes, beta cells in the pancreas are damaged so that little or no insulin is produced; in type 2 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the insulin does not work properly.
A class of anticoagulant drugs that act directly on activated Factor X (Factor Xa) in the coagulation cascade and do not require antithrombin as a mediator. Examples include betrixaban, apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban.
A class of anticoagulant drugs that act directly on thrombin in the coagulation cascade. Examples include hirudin, bivalirudin, argatroban and dabigatran.
Concurrent treatment with two antiplatelet agents.
An abnormal concentration of lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.
Difficult or laboured breathing; shortness of breath.
A sonogram that is used to obtain information about the size and shape of the heart. It can be used to detect the location and extent of any damage to heart tissue, as well as provide information on the direction of blood flow, ejection fractions and to detect thrombi inside the heart.
A sonogram that is used to obtain information about the size and shape of the heart. It can be used to detect the location and extent of any damage to heart tissue, as well as provide information on the direction of blood flow, ejection fractions and to detect thrombi inside the heart.
An oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor (US: Savaysa®, Europe: Lixiana®) that has been approved in Japan for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery, and in Japan, Europe and the US for the treatment and secondary prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in adults (after treatment with a parenteral anticoagulant for 5–10 days), and the prevention of stroke in adult patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.
An imaging technique used to record depolarization and repolarization voltages of the cardiac muscle, via detection of electrical activity by electrodes applied to the skin. Used to detect abnormal heart rhythms or cardiac muscle damage.
A non-lacunar brain infarct without proximal arterial stenosis or an identified source of cardioembolism; also referred to as cryptogenic stroke.
The formation or development of an embolus.
Any detached, travelling intravascular mass carried by the circulation, which is capable of blocking arterial capillary beds at a site distant from its point of origin. If a thrombus breaks loose from its original site, it becomes a thromboembolus; if it is not broken down during transit, it may cause an embolism in another artery or vein.
Any detached, travelling intravascular mass carried by the circulation, which is capable of blocking arterial capillary beds at a site distant from its point of origin. If a thrombus breaks loose from its original site, it becomes a thromboembolus; if it is not broken down during transit, it may cause an embolism in another artery or vein.
Any detached, travelling intravascular mass carried by the circulation, which is capable of blocking arterial capillary beds at a site distant from its point of origin. If a thrombus breaks loose from its original site, it becomes a thromboembolus; if it is not broken down during transit, it may cause an embolism in another artery or vein.
Any detached, travelling intravascular mass carried by the circulation, which is capable of blocking arterial capillary beds at a site distant from its point of origin. If a thrombus breaks loose from its original site, it becomes a thromboembolus; if it is not broken down during transit, it may cause an embolism in another artery or vein.
A procedure that involves unblocking venous segments that are narrowed by intraluminal scars and masses to improve circulation.
A low molecular weight heparin (Clexane®, Lovenox®) administered intraperitoneally or intravenously. It is approved for the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism of venous origin, in particular those that may be associated with orthopaedic or general surgery; the prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in medical patients bedridden owing to acute illness; the acute treatment of unstable angina and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (administered concurrently with acetylsalicylic acid) and ST-elevation myocardial infarction; and the prevention of thrombus formation in the extracorporeal circulation during haemodialysis.
The formation or production of red blood cells.
A variant of the human Factor V gene associated with hypercoagulability disorder, which is relatively common in some populations. Carriers of Factor V Leiden have a modest risk of developing venous thromboembolism.
The active form of Factor X; it forms a complex with Factor Va, phospholipid and calcium to convert prothrombin to thrombin during the coagulation cascade.
A large vein of the upper thigh and pelvic region.
Rapid, irregular twitching/contraction of muscle fibres.
Rapid, irregular twitching/contraction of muscle fibres.
An insoluble filamentous protein formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin as the end product of the coagulation cascade; fibrin proteins stick together to form the basis of a blood clot.
A soluble plasma protein that is converted to fibrin by thrombin during the formation of blood clots via the coagulation cascade.
A process whereby thrombi are broken down by the enzyme plasmin. Primary fibrinolysis refers to the natural process of clot breakdown by the body whereas secondary fibrinolysis refers to the medical or disease-induced breakdown of clots.
A process whereby thrombi are broken down by the enzyme plasmin. Primary fibrinolysis refers to the natural process of clot breakdown by the body whereas secondary fibrinolysis refers to the medical or disease-induced breakdown of clots.
A synthetic Factor Xa inhibitor (Arixtra®) approved for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in adult patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery or abdominal surgery, the prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in adult medical patients who are at high risk of pulmonary embolism and who are immobilized because of acute illness, and the treatment of adults with acute symptomatic spontaneous superficial-vein thrombosis of the lower limbs without concomitant deep vein thrombosis.
An abnormal collection of blood outside of a blood vessel; can be caused by damage to the wall of a blood vessel and subsequent leakage of blood into surrounding tissues.
The inability of the blood circulation to maintain adequate physiological functioning.
Blood perfusion that is not adequate to support normal organ function, normally as a result of low blood pressure.
The detection of free haemoglobin in the urine.
The coughing up of blood originating from the respiratory tract below the level of the larynx.
The study of flow properties of blood and its elements (plasma and formed elements, including red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets).
The rupture of an artery in the brain resulting in bleeding in or around the brain.
A condition that may occur when cardiac output is insufficient to meet the needs of the body and lungs. It is commonly referred to as congestive heart failure. The symptoms of heart failure usually develop quickly (acute heart failure), but they can also develop gradually over time (chronic heart failure).
An endogenous polysaccharide that exerts an anticoagulant effect by potentiating the activity of antithrombin. As a pharmaceutical product, heparin is available as unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
Low platelet count as a result of heparin administration.
An abnormally high level of homocysteine in the blood as a consequence of vitamin B6/B12 and folic acid deficiency.
Abnormally high blood pressure (the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence defines stage 1 hypertension as blood pressure measured in the clinic of 140/90 mm Hg or higher and subsequent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring daytime average or home blood pressure monitoring average of 135/85 mm Hg or higher).
A thickening of the heart muscle, most commonly of the septum between the ventricles, below the aortic valve.
Abnormally low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation. It is normally defined by systolic blood pressure of less than 90/60 mm Hg
An area of tissue that is dying or dead as a result of obstruction of its local blood supply.
A therapeutic technique designed to improve venous circulation in the limbs of patients at risk of venous thromboembolism. Used in medical devices such as air pumps, inflatable auxiliary sleeves, gloves or boots.
A standardized measure of the ability of blood to clot, which is used to monitor anticoagulation levels in patients receiving vitamin K antagonist therapy.
Rupture of a blood vessel within the brain, usually in areas such as the basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem or cortex.
Bleeding within the skull.
Oxygen deprivation in an organ or part of the body that is a result of inadequate blood supply.
Oxygen deprivation in an organ or part of the body that is a result of inadequate blood supply.
Relating to the occlusion of a small artery that provides blood to the deep structures of the brain.
An endogenous polysaccharide that exerts an anticoagulant effect by potentiating the activity of antithrombin. As a pharmaceutical product, heparin is available as unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
A minimally invasive surgical procedure using a fibre-optic instrument inserted through the abdominal wall to directly view the organs of the abdomen and pelvis.
Small ear-shaped sac in the muscle wall of the left atrium of the heart, in which thrombi can form, particularly in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation when blood is not pumped in the normal, orderly way.
Top-left chamber of the heart. In normal sinus rhythm, blood is squeezed out of the left atrium into the left ventricle (bottom-left chamber of the heart).
The volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle with each heartbeat or cardiac cycle, via the aortic valve into the systemic circulation.
A measure of the functionality of the left ventricle to pump blood.
A direct thrombin inhibitor (Refludan®) that can be used when heparins are contraindicated.
An imaging technique that uses the magnetic properties of hydrogen and its interaction with both a large external magnetic field and radio waves to produce highly detailed images of the human body (alternatively known as nuclear magnetic resonance, or NMR, imaging).
When a heart valve fails to close tightly and allows blood to flow in both directions.
The use of a compression device (e.g. compression stockings) to increase venous outflow or reduce stasis within the leg veins.
A durable artificial valve created from man-made/synthetic materials.
A durable artificial valve created from man-made/synthetic materials.
A durable artificial valve created from man-made/synthetic materials.
Narrowing of the mitral valve, usually caused by disease, leading to obstructed blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
A condition that occurs when a portion of the mitral valve slips back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction. Can lead to backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium.
A rating scale used to assess the degree of disability of a patient after a stroke.
Damage to cardiac tissue caused by blockage of a coronary artery or coronary blood vessels preventing blood flow to the heart. Depending on the extent of blockage, myocardial infarction is classified as non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI; partial artery blockage) or ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI; complete artery blockage).
A stroke that is caused by an embolism that did not originate in the heart.
A type of heart attack (myocardial infarction) where blood supply to the heart has been only partially, rather than completely, blocked.
A subtype of atrial fibrillation where the patient has no mitral valve stenosis and no artificial heart valves.
A group of anticoagulant drugs that includes the oral direct Factor Xa inhibitors and the oral direct thrombin inhibitors.
An agent that binds to and inhibits the action of the P2Y12 receptor, thereby reducing platelet aggregation and blood clot formation. Examples include thienopyridine compounds such as clopidogrel and prasugrel.
A durable artificial valve created from man-made/synthetic materials.
A durable artificial valve created from man-made/synthetic materials.
A sensation of an irregular, hard or rapid heartbeat.
Administration of a drug via a route other than the gastrointestinal tract/digestive system, such as via subcutaneous, intramuscular or intravenous injection.
At least two recurrences of atrial fibrillation, interspersed with normal sinus rhythm, that stop within 7 days, but usually within 48 hours.
When the foramen ovale, a small flap-like opening between the right and left atria, which is open during foetal development, fails to close after birth.
A non-surgical procedure in which a catheter is inserted into a blocked coronary artery so that a stent can be placed to allow the restoration of arterial blood flow to the cardiac tissue.
A non-invasive imaging technique used to assess blood flow.
A condition where there is reduced blood flow to extremities, usually the legs, caused by atherosclerosis (narrowing of arteries).
Inflammation of a vein.
A class of drugs derived from plant extracts and synthetic compounds commonly used to treat chronic venous insufficiency. They have been proposed to improve venous tone, stabilize capillary permeability and increase lymphatic drainage.
A blood enzyme that degrades the fibrin in blood clots.
An irregular, non-nucleated, disc-shaped element in the blood that is involved in blood clotting.
The process by which platelets are stimulated by collagen exposed by a break in the endothelium or by thrombin generated in the coagulation cascade. Morphological changes then occur in the platelet surface that support the assembly of coagulation factors leading to platelet aggregation.
The period after childbirth through the first 6 weeks of an infant’s life.
The development of symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency as a long-term complication of deep vein thrombosis. Post-thrombotic syndrome is caused by venous hypertension, which leads to impaired venous return, reduced calf muscle perfusion and abnormal microvasculature function with increased tissue permeability.
A platelet inhibitor (US: Effient®; EU: Efient®), which when co-administered with acetylsalicylic acid, has received regulatory approval for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (i.e. unstable angina, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction or ST-elevation myocardial infarction) undergoing primary or delayed percutaneous coronary intervention.
A mutation in the gene responsible for the production of prothrombin that increases the tendency of the blood to clot.
A complex formed between Factor Xa, Factor Va, phospholipids and calcium ions. This complex catalyses the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.
A cell adhesion molecule expressed on platelets and endothelial cells, which can be used as a biomarker of thrombogenesis.
A progressive disease caused by narrowing of blood vessels both within and connected to the lungs. It is characterized by an increase of blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, leading to symptoms including shortness of breath, dizziness and fainting.
A life-threatening condition caused by the blockage of a lung artery by an embolus, which has most-commonly developed in one of the deep veins of the leg.
Prognostic assessment tools to predict 30-day mortality after acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism.
An operation that is performed to remove thrombi and scar tissue from the pulmonary arteries.
An event that occurs more than once in a patient over time. Examples may include a recurrent venous thromboembolism (which could present as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) or a recurrent acute coronary syndrome event.
Lower-than-normal percentage of blood leaving the heart each time it contracts. An ejection fraction of ≥55% is considered normal and ≤50% is considered reduced (50–55% is borderline).
Restoration of blood flow to an organ or tissue.
Restoration of adequate blood supply and improved oxygen levels to an area that has suffered ischaemia.
An abnormally fast heart rate (tachycardia) or an abnormally slow heart rate (bradycardia).
A small muscular pouch that projects from the upper anterior portion of the right atrium.
A diagnostic procedure to assess blood flow through the heart and measure pressures inside the heart and lungs.
Any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. Transient risk factors are those that are temporary, such as major surgery, hospitalization and long-distance travel. Examples of persistent (permanent) risk factors include cancer or antiphospholipid syndrome.
An oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor (Xarelto®) that has received regulatory approval for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery, the treatment and secondary prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in adults, the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in adult patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, and the prevention of atherothrombotic events after an acute coronary syndrome in adults with elevated cardiac biomarkers when administered with acetylsalicylic acid with or without clopidogrel.
Normal heart rhythm, as opposed to arrhythmia.
A stoppage or slowdown in blood flow.
A type of heart attack (myocardial infarction) where a large area of the heart has been seriously damaged caused by total blockage of a coronary artery.
An abnormal narrowing or contraction of a vessel or opening.
A wire mesh, stainless steel tube that holds a cardiac artery open and keeps it from narrowing again.
The development of a thrombus within an artery after implantation of a stent. A stent is a scaffold that is placed into diseased peripheral or coronary arteries. However, the body may have an immune response to the stent, leading to an inflammatory response and subsequent thrombosis.
A sudden interruption in the blood supply of the brain. Ischaemic stroke, the most common type of stroke, occurs when an artery supplying blood to the brain becomes blocked, causing the surrounding brain tissue to die.
The medical term for fainting, defined as a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, characterized by rapid onset, short duration and spontaneous recovery.
An abnormally rapid heart rhythm, where the heart is not able to efficiently pump oxygen-rich blood to the body.
An agent that binds to and inhibits the action of the P2Y12 receptor, thereby reducing platelet aggregation and blood clot formation. Examples include thienopyridine compounds such as clopidogrel and prasugrel.
Abnormally rapid breathing (also known as polypnoea).
Surgical excision of a thrombus from a blood vessel.
An enzyme that activates several factors involved in the coagulation cascade (Factors V, VIII, XI, and XIII) and converts fibrinogen to fibrin, resulting in clot formation. Thrombin also activates platelets and promotes platelet aggregation.
A reduction in the platelet count below the normal lower limit (usually defined as 150–450×109/l).
The obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot that has become dislodged from another blood vessel.
The obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot that has become dislodged from another blood vessel.
Causing coagulation of blood or thrombi.
The dissolution of a blood clot.
The use of drugs to break up or dissolve blood clots. A commonly used thrombolytic drug is tissue plasminogen activator.
An abnormality of blood coagulation that increases the risk of thrombosis. Otherwise known as a hypercoagulable or prothrombotic state, thrombophilias may be hereditary (e.g. protein C or S deficiency; Factor V Leiden) or acquired (factors such as increasing age, surgery or active cancer).
Thromboplastin reagents are used to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists for patients with thromboembolic disorders.
A measure or medication taken to reduce the likelihood of the formation of a thromboembolism (blood clot).
The formation of a blood clot, or thrombus, inside a blood vessel. If this clot breaks loose and gets carried by the bloodstream to obstruct blood flow in another vessel, it becomes known as a thromboembolism.
A blood clot formed in a blood vessel or chamber of the heart.
A platelet aggregation inhibitor (Brilique®), which when co-administered with acetylsalicylic acid, is approved for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in adult patients with acute coronary syndromes, including patients managed medically, and those who are managed with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting.
An important initiator of blood coagulation present in subendothelial tissue and leukocytes. In the extrinsic coagulation pathway, tissue factor binds Factor VIIa, leading to activation of coagulation Factors IX and X, which ultimately leads to fibrin formation.
An enzyme that aids dissolution of a blood clot (thrombolysis) via activation of plasminogen (the inactive precursor of plasmin).
Diagnostic procedure in which a probe emitting ultrasonic sound waves is passed down the oesophagus to assess the function of the heart. The sound waves are converted to an echocardiogram image of the heart.
A form of stroke or mini-stroke that occurs when the symptoms last only a short time (usually a few minutes) and are resolved in less than 24 hours.
A diagnostic test using an ultrasound device placed on the patient’s chest wall to obtain an image of the heart and large vessels.
A diagnostic test using an ultrasound device placed on the patient’s chest wall to obtain an image of the heart and large vessels.
An endogenous polysaccharide that exerts an anticoagulant effect by potentiating the activity of antithrombin. As a pharmaceutical product, heparin is available as unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
When a heart valve fails to close tightly and allows blood to flow in both directions.
A subtype of atrial fibrillation where the patient has mitral valve stenosis or artificial heart valves.
Hardening of vessels (atherosclerosis), caused by fatty deposits (plaques or atheroma). Subsequent vessel obstruction may lead to lack of blood supply to vital organs and tissues.
Spasm (sudden contraction) of blood vessels.
A device inserted into the inferior vena cava to prevent a blood clot from entering the lungs.
A class of drugs derived from plant extracts and synthetic compounds commonly used to treat chronic venous insufficiency. They have been proposed to improve venous tone, stabilize capillary permeability and increase lymphatic drainage.
A condition that comprises deep vein thrombosis (a thrombus in a deep vein, usually in the leg) and pulmonary embolism (the blockage of a lung artery by an embolus).
A complication of deep vein thrombosis, in which valves in the leg veins are damaged by the thrombus, thereby causing blood to flow the wrong way in the vein and eventually damaging the skin.
An imaging test commonly performed to check for the presence of a thrombus or abnormal blood flow inside the lungs (such as a pulmonary embolism), by evaluating the circulation of air (ventilation) and blood (perfusion) within the lungs using radioactive materials.
A hormonally active component of body fat that is deposited alongside the soft internal organs of the body.
A drug that blocks the action of vitamin K resulting in an anticoagulant effect. Examples include warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon.