In comparison with the many, large-scale studies in adult populations, venous thromboembolism (VTE) has rarely been studied in paediatric populations. Very few large-scale clinical trials involving paediatric patients with VTE have been undertaken. Consequently, guidance on the treatment of this patient group is limited. In addition, paediatric patients exhibit large physiological variability and a high likelihood of comorbid conditions. Further investigation into the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in paediatric patients is, therefore, urgently needed.