Prompt diagnosis and treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is essential to decrease both the risk of recurrence and a potentially fatal pulmonary embolism (PE). Traditionally, initial treatment of DVT and PE begins with a parenteral anticoagulant, transitioning to longer-term Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy. Another option is the direct Factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban, an oral anticoagulant. This single-drug approach removes the need for overlapping administration of heparin and a VKA, which can be complex owing to the requirement for coagulation monitoring and dose-adjustment of the VKA. The use of compression stockings is an important adjunct to pharmacological treatment in patients with DVT. Other venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment approaches may include: surgery; catheter-guided thrombectomy; or thrombolytic therapy.