Patients with cancer face an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) as malignancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state and the use of chemotherapy agents may also contribute to an increased risk. In fact, VTE is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Risk factors for cancer-associated VTE include: tumor type; age; stage of cancer; and VTE history. Risk stratification and use of biomarker-based approaches may assist in the provision of targeted thromboprophylaxis. The use of a validated predictive model for VTE risk in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy may also enable clinicians to determine whether patients are at particularly high risk of VTE.