• Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for stroke

    Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for stroke

    The incidence of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is 2–17 times greater than in the general population, depending on the cause of AF. In addition, cardioembolic stroke is one of the most common complications of AF. The risk of stroke in patients with AF is also dependent on several risk factors, including age, with older patients being at higher risk. Several risk assessment tools are available to clinicians to help estimate the risk of stroke. One well-validated and widely-used tool is the CHA2DS2-VASc score, which identifies both major risk factors and clinically relevant non-major risk factors.

  • Steering Committee Films Introduction

    Steering Committee Films Introduction

    Sylvia Haas, Graham Turpie, Greg Lip and Ajay Kakkar give an overview of the website.

  • World Thrombosis Day - What could happen in the next 37Secs?

    World Thrombosis Day - What could happen in the next 37Secs?

    What Could happen in the next 37 seconds? Blood clots are the cause of the top three cardiovascular killers: heart attack, stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) however, most blood clots can be prevented or if need be treated. Go to http://www.worldthrombosisday.org to learn the symptoms and risk factors and if you are at risk, talk to your doctor.

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is usually the formation of a thrombus in the deep veins of the leg, although DVT may also occur in the veins of the upper extremities. DVT can occur spontaneously without a known underlying cause or after provoking events, such as trauma, surgery or acute illness. Complications of DVT include pulmonary embolism (PE), post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and a risk of VTE recurrence. The Wells score, a commonly used clinical score, quantifies the likelihood of an individual patient having DVT. Although a high Wells score indicates a clinical probability of DVT, an objective imaging technique, such as compression ultrasonography, must be used to confirm or rule out DVT.


Unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins

Two types of heparins are commonly used as anticoagulants – unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs). UFH has been used for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis for several decades. UFH has variable anticoagulant effects and pharmacological properties and also has limited bioavailability and highly variable anticoagulant response. LMWHs are derived from UFH by depolymerization. Each LMWH product has a specific molecular weight distribution that determines its anticoagulant activity and duration of action. LMWHs are associated with a predictable dose–response and have fewer non-haemorrhagic side-effects. Because of these clinical advantages, LMWHs have gradually replaced UFH for most indications.


Thrombus Formation

Haemostasis is necessary for survival, but the pathological formation of a thrombus poses significant health risks. A pathological thrombus, formed when there is an imbalance in the blood coagulation system, can potentially obstruct blood flow, leading to a number of serious health conditions. Two different types of thrombi can be formed: arterial thrombi and venous thrombi. The pathologist Rudolph Virchow postulated that thrombus formation and propagation resulted from abnormalities in three areas, collectively known as Virchow’s Triad. It is now possible to quantify some of the factors that are associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and other cardiovascular diseases, and of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).


Steering Committee Films Atrial Fibrillation

Steering Committee Films Atrial Fibrillation

Greg Lip summarizes the Atrial Fibrillation section of ThrombosisAdvisor.com. Visit this section to learn about atrial fibrillation, stroke and the benefits of anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Greg Lip summarizes the Atrial Fibrillation section of ThrombosisAdvisor.com. Visit this section to learn about atrial fibrillation, stroke and the benefits of anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation.


Arterial Thrombosis

When a thrombus forms within an artery, this is known as an arterial thrombosis. Arterial thrombi usually develop on top of an atherosclerotic plaque and cause myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina, ischaemic stroke and some manifestations of peripheral arterial disease, such as acute limb ischaemia. Risk factors for arterial thrombosis include smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, increasing age, diabetes and family history. The incidence and prevalence of the clinical manifestations of arterial thrombosis is high. The annual incidence of symptomatic and fatal MI and stroke in the United States (US) in 2010 has been calculated to be 915,000 and 795,000 cases, respectively.


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